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Home Visual and measuring control Photo album of defects of the base metal

Photo album of defects of the base metal


Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла

The metal defects photo album contains more than 200 photographs and schematic images of metal surface defects detected by visual and measuring inspection. In addition to photos, each defect has a definition from the regulatory documentation. The name of each defect is duplicated in English, German and French. At the end of the album contains a list of recommended literature and tools for visual inspection.

Album material is based on the following documents:

A photo album of metal defects can be used in the preparation and certification of welders and flaw detectors for visual measuring control, and is also of interest to scientists in the field of metallurgy. For educational and scientific work, it is also recommended to use the first part of this publication - a photo album of welding defects.

Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла Фотоальбом дефектов основного металла

The content of the photo album of metal defects

Defects according to ГОСТ 19200-80:

1. Defects of inconsistency in the geometry of the casting:

  1. Short run (misrun)
  2. Cold lap
  3. Incorrect shape
  4. Bulging
  5. Mismatch (cross-joint)
  6. Mismatch in core
  7. Different wall thickness
  8. Rod filling
  9. Distortion (warping)
  10. Mechanical damage
  11. Metal run out
  12. Metal leakage

2. Cast surface defects:

  1. Burn on
  2. Cold lap, cold shut
  3. Expansion scab
  4. Knob, scab
  5. Flash, cross-joint
  6. Surface contamination
  7. Oxide spots
  8. Veining (mapping)
  9. Foldness (waviness)
  10. Rough surface
  11. Gas roughness

3. Defects of discontinuity in the casting body:

  1. Shrinkage crack (hot crack)
  2. Cold crack
  3. Intercrystalline crack
  4. Blowholes
  5. Sieve shell
  6. Draw (contraction cavity)
  7. Sand holes (drop)
  8. Slag blowholes (slag inclusion)
  9. Poured slag
  10. Graphite porosity
  11. Shrinkage porosity
  12. Gas porosity
  13. Microporosity (shrinkage porosity, grain boundary cracks)
  14. Boiling
  15. Shrinkage depression

4. Inclusion defects:

  1. Exogenous metallic inclusion
  2. Non-metallik inclusions
  3. Metal ball

5. Structure mismatch defects:

  1. Chill hard spots
  2. Halfness
  3. liquation
  4. Flakes

Video presentation of the photo album Defects in the base metal

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Defects according to ГОСТ 21014-88:

1. Surface defects due to ingot and cast billet quality:

  1. Rolled slag patch (sand mark)
  2. Hairline (spill)
  3. Rolled blister
  4. Bubble blistering
  5. Delamination
  6. Ingot hot tear
  7. Sliver (rolled scab)
  8. Rolled burn-on
  9. Rolled crack

2. Surface defects formed during deformation:

  1. Hot tears
  2. Cracked edge
  3. Foldededge
  4. Forging fold
  5. Sliver (rolling skin)
  6. Stress crack
  7. Pigeon hole
  8. Ridge
  9. Undercut
  10. Сut
  11. Wrinkles
  12. Lap
  13. Groove (guide mark)
  14. Through tears
  15. Surface tears
  16. Guide scratch
  17. Pricks
  18. Rolled indentations
  19. Indentations and roll marks
  20. Rippled surface
  21. Rolled-in scale
  22. Pitted surface
  23. Pitting (scale pits)
  24. Rolled metal particles
  25. Sink-in
  26. Exfoliating scale
  27. Rolled-in foreign particles
  28. Metal leak
  29. Gray spots
  30. Dirty spots
  31. Sticker patches
  32. Burr
  33. Hacks
  34. End crack
  35. Slip bands
  36. Сold-hardening
  37. Cross breaks (coil breaks)
  38. Heat tints (oxidation tints)

3. Surface defects resulting from finishing operations:

  1. Picking cracks
  2. Slime deposit
  3. Underpickling
  4. Overpickling
  5. Scale residue
  6. Hue etching
  7. Rust spots
  8. Compression marks (handling marks)
  9. Scratch
  10. Grinding cracks
  11. Dull surface




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